top of page

Unveiling the Enigma: Who wrote Mahabharata?

Updated: May 27, 2023


The age-old question: Who wrote Mahabharata?

For centuries, people have been fascinated with the epic story of Mahabharata. The longest poem ever written, it is a tale of princes and princesses, gods and goddesses, and a war that shook the foundations of the ancient world.

But while many know the story by heart, few know who wrote it. Despite years of research and study, scholars are still debating over its authorship.

Who wrote Mahabharata

The Ultimate Epic

Mahabharata is an incredibly complex narrative that features hundreds of characters and spans numerous generations. It tells the story of two rival branches of a royal family who struggle for control over their kingdom. With themes ranging from love to duty to betrayal, the epic is as relevant today as it was thousands of years ago.


Why Does It Matter?

Knowing who wrote Mahabharata is important for several reasons. First, it allows us to better understand the cultural context in which it was written.

By studying its historical background and literary influences, we can gain insight into ancient Indian society and culture. In addition, understanding its authorship can help us appreciate the immense effort that went into creating this masterpiece.

Scholars estimate that it took hundreds – if not thousands – of years to compile this epic work; knowing how this process unfolded can give us a new appreciation for its literary achievements. Ultimately though, discovering who wrote Mahabharata may be impossible; with so much time passed between now and then – around 400 BCE or earlier – much information has become lost to history.


Traditional Belief on Authorship


Maharshi VedaVyasa - the author

Mahabharata is one of the two great epics of Hindu mythology, the other being Ramayana. According to traditional belief, Maharshi Vyasa is said to be the author of Mahabharata.

He was a great sage who lived in ancient India and was considered to be a master storyteller. It is believed that he wrote the epic around 3000 years ago.

Who wrote Mahabharata

His life and background

Maharshi VedaVyasa's real name was Krishna Dvaipayana. He was born into a Brahmin family and was the son of Satyavati, who later became the queen mother of Hastinapur after marrying King Shantanu. His early years were spent in forests where he studied under his father.

Vyasa was known for his knowledge and wisdom. He is said to have composed several other texts besides Mahabharata, such as Brahma Sutras, Bhagavata Purana, etc.


Role in compiling and editing the epic

Maharshi Vyasa is not just credited with writing Mahabharata but also with compiling it from various sources. The epic has many subplots and characters that make it an incredibly complex work. It is believed that Maharshi Vyasa narrated Mahabharata to Lord Ganesha, who wrote it down on palm leaves while they travelled through forests.

Later, this manuscript was passed down through generations until it became what we know today as Mahabharata. According to traditional belief, Maharshi Vyasa is considered to be the author of Mahabharata.

His life and background are shrouded in mythological stories that add to his mystique. His role in compiling and editing this epic remains unparalleled, and his contribution to Hindu mythology continues to be celebrated even today.

Who wrote Mahabharata

Alternative Theories on Authorship


Multiple authors over time

The traditional belief of Maharshi Vyasa being the sole author of the Mahabharata has been challenged by the idea that it was not a single person who wrote the epic, but multiple authors over time. Scholars argue that the Mahabharata was composed over centuries, with different parts added and revised at different times. Some parts of the text are believed to be much older than others, which suggests that there were several generations of writers involved in creating it.

One theory is that it began as an oral tradition, with stories passed down from generation to generation before being written down. This would explain why certain parts of the text have a more archaic language and style compared to others.


Influence of oral tradition

Another alternative theory on the authorship of Mahabharata is that it was influenced by an ancient Indian tradition called "smriti", which refers to knowledge passed down orally. According to this theory, many authors were involved in adding new stories and characters to the epic over time, based on their interpretations and versions they heard from their teachers or predecessors. The influence of oral tradition can also be seen in various regional versions of Mahabharata across India and Southeast Asia.

Different regions have their unique interpretations and variations on certain stories or characters. For instance, while most versions agree that Arjuna won Draupadi's hand in marriage through an archery contest, some versions depict other suitors attempting (and failing) at this same challenge.


Debate over authenticity

With so many different authors potentially contributing to Mahabharata's creation, there are also debates about its authenticity as a historical document. Some scholars argue that certain sections were added or manipulated for political purposes or religious agendas. For instance, some of the text's more controversial themes (such as infanticide and polyandry) have been criticized as being too far-fetched to have occurred.

Others argue that these themes reflect certain cultural practices or beliefs that were prevalent during the period in which it was written. Overall, while the traditional belief of a single author remains popular, several alternative theories on Mahabharata's authorship continue to be explored by scholars today.


The Historical Context and Significance of Mahabharata

Mahabharata is not just a story, it is also a historical account of ancient India. The events that shaped Mahabharata are believed to have occurred during the period between 400 BCE to 400 CE. This time was marked by political instability, social upheaval and religious transformation.

The Indian subcontinent was divided into several small kingdoms and tribes, each vying for power and territory. It was in this context that Mahabharata emerged as a unifying force for the people of India.

Mahabharata has immense cultural significance in Hinduism. It is considered one of the two greatest epics in Indian literature, the other being Ramayana.

The epic tells the story of dharma, righteousness and moral duty, which are considered integral to Hindu philosophy. It contains teachings on karma, reincarnation, devotion and self-realization that have influenced generations of Hindus over centuries.

Many Hindus believe that reading or listening to Mahabharata can purify one's mind and soul. Mahabharata's influence on Indian literature and philosophy cannot be overstated.

Its themes have been explored in plays, poems, novels and films across India and Southeast Asia for centuries. The epic has also inspired many spiritual leaders who have used its teachings to spread their message across the world.

Even today, many scholars continue to study Mahabharata from various perspectives including literary criticism, anthropology and religious studies. Overall, Mahabharata remains one of India's greatest cultural treasures with an enduring legacy that has touched countless lives over time.


Interesting Facts about Mahabharata's Writing Process


Use of Palm Leaves to Write the Epic

One of the most fascinating aspects of Mahabharata's writing process is the medium used to write it. The earliest versions of Mahabharata were written on palm leaves, which were bound together with string or twine to form a book. This was a common writing material in ancient India, as palm leaves were readily available and durable.

The scribes would use a stylus called a "takshaka" to inscribe the text on the palm leaves with incredible precision and accuracy. Interestingly, in South India and parts of Southeast Asia, there are still ancient temples that house these palm-leaf manuscripts.

These manuscripts are kept in special storage rooms that are temperature-controlled and protected from moisture and insects. Some scholars believe that these ancient texts contain valuable information about Indian history and culture that has been lost over time.

Who wrote Mahabharata

Different Versions Across India and Southeast Asia

Another interesting fact about Mahabharata is that there are many different versions of it across India and Southeast Asia. Each region has their own unique interpretation of the epic, with variations in language, style, characters, and plotlines.

For example, the Bengali version of Mahabharata is known for its lyrical prose and vivid descriptions, while the Tamil version focuses more on moral teachings and philosophical ideas. These various versions have been passed down orally from generation to generation for centuries before being written down on palm leaves or paper.


Lengthy Process Spanning Centuries

The writing process for Mahabharata spanned several centuries, making it one of the longest literary works ever produced by humans. Its origins date back to ancient India's Vedic period (1500 BCE - 500 BCE), where it was first composed orally and passed down through generations. Over time, different authors and scribes added their own stories and interpretations to the epic, resulting in a vast collection of tales that explore everything from politics to religion to love.

This lengthy process also contributed to the variations found across different versions of Mahabharata. Despite the many changes that occurred over time, Mahabharata remains one of the most important works of Indian literature and a testament to human creativity and imagination.


After delving into the topic, it is clear that the authorship of Mahabharata is a complex and debated issue. Traditional belief claims Maharshi Vyasa is the sole author, but alternative theories suggest multiple authors over time with an influence of oral tradition. Regardless of who wrote it, the epic is undeniably significant in Hinduism and Indian literature and philosophy.

Understanding who wrote Mahabharata can provide insight into its historical context and cultural significance. The epic has been passed down through generations for centuries, with different versions found across India and Southeast Asia.

It was often written on palm leaves and underwent a lengthy process of editing and compiling over time. One reason why knowing who wrote Mahabharata matters is because it sheds light on how historical events shaped Indian culture.

It also allows for a deeper understanding of Hindu philosophy and mythology. Furthermore, understanding its origins can help preserve the authenticity of this ancient text for future generations to come.

While there may be debate surrounding its authorship, there is no doubt that Mahabharata holds immense value to those who practice Hinduism or are interested in ancient Indian literature. Whether you believe it was written by one person or many doesn't ultimately matter - what matters most is that we continue to appreciate this epic's beauty and significance in our world today.


If you have found this information valuable, make sure to subscribe to our weekly newsletters. Stay updated and never miss out on anything while you continue your journey towards optimal health and holistic living.

Comments

Rated 0 out of 5 stars.
No ratings yet

Add a rating

About the Author

Namaste! My name is Pooja Chauhan

I am a Yoga Alliance Certified Yoga Teacher and a practitioner. Diving deep into the realm of my own heritage to create a significant impact in preserving and sharing my culture with the world.

  • Pinterest
  • Instagram
  • Facebook

Take the leap of Faith! - Subscribe NOW!

By entering your info, you’ll receive – FREE access to exclusive insights, private Q+As, inspiring content and the latest trends and roadmap for your delivered with 💜 to your inbox. (Unsub anytime with a click.) You also agree to our Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

bottom of page